Lightroom 3 lesson – lesser known tips

Black and white filter

Below is a photo taken at a club with flash and a long exposure, close to a second. When you choose Black and White in the top right near Basic develop settings, a filter is applied based on the strength of certain colours in the photo. In this situation, a straight colour conversion to -100 saturation seems to darken or hide the blue ambient light, while the auto B&W filter brightens the blue/purple channel.

Colour, saturation zero.

Colour, saturation -100 (or Black & White with filter zeroed).

Black & White with filter on auto.

Another way to change the brightness of certain areas is to leave saturation at -100 and then change the white balance. Skin tones become dark and unnatural at cold white balance settings. For photos of a band on stage, changing the white balance in black and white can even seem to change the direction of the lighting, such as having red lights from the left brightened and blue lights from the right darkened at a warm white balance, then the opposite at a cool white balance.

Shortcuts

  • Press F twice for full screen view.
  • Control + Tab to hide or show side bars.
  • Press J to show clipping.
  • Right click on the background past the edges of a photo and change the colour from white through black. I leave it on black with pinstripes.
  • Control + Shift + Alt + E: exports the selected photo(s) with the same settings (size, folder, output sharpening etc.) as the previous export.
  • Confirm cropping by pressing Enter on the keyboard. instead of clicking Done.
  • Press X to rotate the cropping outline by 90 degrees.
  • Press O to cycle through overlay modes. The default is the a big grid. The rule of thirds is very useful and there is a variation on the rule of thirds which can centre and strengthen compositions. The Golden Spiral is also great and I find it often more suitable when cropping 4:3 rather than 3:2 ratios.
  • Press Shift O to rotate the overlay (there are many ways to display the Golden Spiral.

If you have tagged a photo, cropped it and edited it, then the picture and the bottom will look something like this, which each icon indicating the step was performed.

The bar at the bottom of the screen

If you are in Develop mode and click on the tag icon, you will be taken to Libary view and the tag section. Similarly, clicking the +/- button will take you back to Develop mode and the middle one goes to crop view.

A full list of keyboard shortcuts is viewable on the Lightroom 3 help website here.

Check out the lesson I wrote for automating lens corrections on import: here.

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How to choose your first DSLR camera

DSLR – Digital Single Lens Reflex

Some early cameras had to lenses, one to look through and one to take pictures. They are still around today. The reflex part is about having a mirror that flips or springs up when you take a photo, to expose the sensor. Compact cameras are usually mirrorless.

I can recommend dpreview.com as a start for looking at reviews.

Worldwide sales 41% Canon 40% Nikon. Nikon outsells Canon in Japan (they are both based in Japan). If you compare two models at the same price, picture quality and features are very similar and pros an cons even out . More Megapixels doesn’t make a better camera, just a new camera with bigger prints. Fast focusing and a fast burst rate (4 frames per second over 3 fames per second) would be better for sport. Consider the weight, feel and differences in features.

Personally I like Nikon for the bigger APS sensor (therefore less noise and more light) while Canons have a smaller APS-C sensor (slightly more zoomed in for sport etc) and although Canons are  known for HD video , newer Nikons have full HD video with autofocus. The high end Canon 5D II and 7D have full HD video but still lack autofocus.

I would suggest the new D3100 which is a slight upgrade to the D3000, so it will probably have improvements on the older Canon 1000d as well. If you have the budget or could wait to save more, I would reccommend a slightly more expensive camera like the Canon 450d or the Nikon D5000. Otherwise you could easily outgrow your entry level DSLR soon into its 3 or 4 year lifespan, and have a harder time getting good quality photos, especially if you start working as a photographer part time.

Instead of a getting a combo of 18-55mm and 55-200mm or something similar, I would also suggest a 18-105mm or a 18-135mm or even a 18-200mm lens. Those have a wide range so you don’t have to change lenses often.

Nikon and Canon both have large variety of inexpensive to professional lenses. Also in general it is a good idea to buy a Sigma or Tamron lens made for a Canon or Nikon, which is good quality but cheaper than a Canon or Nikon lens.

Read about the camera equipment on my other blog’s page: Michael Currin Photography – About.

Photography Facts

The first Kodak camera was unveiled in 1888 and Kodak was the first to invent a digital camera in 1976. (Armstrong & Kotler, Princples of Marketing, 2008)

Nikon was founded in 1917 as Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha which means Japan Optical Industries Corporation.

Canon was founded in Tokyo in 1937.

In 2007, DSLR sales worldwide were divided between Canon (41%), Nikon (40%), Olympus (6%) and Sony (6%). In Japan’s domestic market, Nikon had 43% and Canon 40%.

Although very difficult to measure in camera terms, the aperture of the human eye is about f/2 to f/8, with a focal length of around 24mm.

Concert Photography Tips – DSLR settings

You can see a growing of many list of concerts I have taken photos at, mostly small dimly lit clubs and couple of large stages in Cape Town, South Africa. I took the photos in this article with a D90 and a Nikon 18-105mm kit lens or a  Sigma 24-70mm f/2.8, edited in Lightroom.

Dim stage with a slow kit lens

LA Cobra - 18mm, 1/80, f/3.5, ISO2000

A kit lens that comes with the camera will typically say f/3.5-5.6 which is considered “slow” as you have to use longer exposures (meaning blur) or higher ISOs (meaning noise) to achieve as much light as a higher quality low-light lens (read on for that).

  • Aperture: 3.5 is the best at a wide angle, your lens will be forced to f/4, f/5, f/5.6 or f/6.3 as you zoom. So for bright photos, stand closer, zoom less and crop more on your computer.
  • Exposure: 1/125, 1/100, 1/80 or even 1/60 if you already have a high ISO and have something to lean on to stablilise yourself, you have a VR or IS lens,  or the band is standing fairly still.
  • ISO settings: Turn AUTO ISO Off so that it stays at a value you fix. I prefer ISO 800, I use 1600 at some venues and if its really dark I use 2000 or 3200. Those last two mean you should probably turn the camera’s noise reduction to High, or leave it off and use higher values in Lightroom 3 etc.
  • Mode: Manual

Dim stage with a low-light lens

Stonecollar - 24mm, 1/100, f/2.8, ISO800

  • Aperture: A zoom lens with f/2.8 on it will stay wide open at that aperture throughout the zoom range so that you don’t lose brightness as you zoom. Even better can be a prime lens such as 50mm f/1.8 or 30mm f/1.4.
  • Exposure: 1/160, 1/125, 1/100 or even 1/80
  • ISO settings: Usually 400 or 800, sometimes having to resort to 1600 or 3200 at some venues but still achieving professional and fairly noise free photos.
  • Mode: Manual, or Aperture priority with an EV of say -3.

Bright stage, any lens

Wishbone Ash - 42mm, 1/400, f/3.5, ISO400

  • Aperture: you can probably afford to use values like f/4 and f/5.6, or like f/8 and f/11 if the lighting is shining right at you, which will also give a starburst effect. These settings allow use to get more of the musicians in focus (wider depth of field) while also reaching your lens’s “sweet-spot” for sharpness usually two stops above the widest. e.g. on a f/2.8 lens the sweet spot is f/5.6, on f/3.5 it’s f/8
  • Exposure: you can probably use 1/200, 1/320  or 1/500 which will freeze musicians and their hair as they jump about the stage.
  • ISO: If the lighting is pretty constant, set AUTO ISO ON with values from 200 to 800 and set a value for  Exposure Value (EV) compensation at like -3 or -2. The ISO will change based on if you are aiming at a light or dark part of the stage. If the the lighting is changing every second so that your camera always gets the photo brightness way off,  you are better off setting ISO yourself (AUTO ISO OFF) and using Manual mode.
  • Mode: Manual, Program, Aperture Priority (e.g. f/2.8 for narrow depth of field), Shutter Priority (e.g. 100 for wider DOF or 200 for freezing action).

Small stage with flash

Heldervue with mixed remote flash (from below) and stage lighting - 24mm, 1/60, f/2.8, ISO500

I have only used my new flash (SB-600) so far at once concert and it was a dark venue with lights aimed at the guitars rather than musicians’ faces. But my flash was capable of lighting up the stage well, or the whole crowd when I aimed it over their heads.

I like to use handheld off-camera flash (remote) and bounce it off the low ceiling (works well even though its black).

I use the built-in diffuser camera most of the time since I am close to or on the edge of the stage.

The point of flash is to get sharp pictures (little or no blur) even in dimly lit enviroments, as well as using it creatively. An advatange is that you can use lower ISO values such as 200 to reduce noise, but even at 400 or 800 (which makes the flash seem to reach further) I had no problems of noise in the bright or shadowy areas. I used JPG and Normal Noise Reduction – when not using flash, I highly recommend using the RAW format unless you hate post-processing which involves touching up your photos without losing image quality.

So I suggest…

  • Aperture: f/2.8 or f/3.5 for narrow depth of field effect. This makes photos look more professional if the focus is right and the wider value will also mean brigther photos especially shooting musicians at a distance. Use f/4, f/5.6 or f/8 if you are close the musicians and you want more of them to be in focus (face as well as guitar, or guitarist and bassist).
  • Exposure: Using 1/60 (default in program mode) will let it a decent amount of ambient stage lighting but might get ghosting and blur on strumming hands. You can use a shorter value in Shutter Priority or Manual Mode, or set flash on Rear Curtain sync on the camera.
  • ISO settings: 200 to 800 should be fine. If you leave AUTO ISO ON, you should probably set Exposure compensation (EV) on the camera. Also generally set Flash compensation (FV) on the camera or flash to a lower value so that the flash lasts longer or pictures are darkened.

Reburn's singer showing front curtain flash ghosting - 24mm (cropped photo), 1/60, f/2.8, ISO400

Turn High Speed Sync on and it will automatically kick in should you use shutter values shorter than say 1/250 of a second, but it’s not really necessary for concerts.

I like to be able to change quickly between flash and non-flash shots with as few buttons as possible. So I set my camera up as follows: External flash is on, camera in manual mode at 1/60 and whatever aperture I need. Auto ISO is ON with values 200 to 1600, but stays at 200 while the flash is on. I turn the flash unit off, ISO changes to 1600 (because the scene is dark) and I change exposure to something like 1/100 (2 turns of the dial) and aperture to f/2.8 if it wasn’t there already.

Depth of field

Black Market Riots - 65mm, 1/100, f/2.8, ISO250

If you are using a low light lens (f/2.8 or faster), then depth of field will be much smaller (less in focus). This is great for artistic reasons (see the photo above) but if you don’t want that effect all the time, use a value like f/3.5 or f/4 when lighting is bright during a certain song, stand further back,t use the wide rather than zoomed end of your lens. Set AF-area to Single or Dynamic rather than Auto, then you can use  AF point system in the viewfinder to aim at eyes and faces, usually on the musician closest to you. Focusing in Live View seems to be slower and less accurate in my experience but helps alot when used with Manual focus (set on both your lens and your camera body) if your camera struggles to find something to focus on.

 

A good lesson I found on choosing lenses for concerts. Choosing Lenses For Concert Photography